Hippeis

Hippeis

The World of Christian Cameron

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Timeline

365 BC Kineas born
356 BC Alexander born
355 BC Srayanka born
339 BC Battle of the Plains; Philip II fights Ataelus I on the plains north of Thrace.
Srayanka is a 14-year-old maiden archer.
Phocion defeats Macedonian Allies in the Chersonessus.
Kineas is a Phylarch.
338 BC Battle of Chaeronea. Philip II and Alexander defeat a coalition led by Athens.
Kineas is wounded in the retreat.
336 BC Athens votes to send contingent with Alexander to Persia.
Kineas is made Hipparch of the contingent.
335 BC –
328 BC
Events of Tyrant and Tyrant: Storm of Arrows
334 BC (May) Battle of the Granicus.
333 BC (November) Battle of Issus. Kineas’s first large scale action with Alexander.
332 BC Siege of Tyre
331 BC
(7 April)
Founding of Alexandria
331 BC Battle of Gaugamela (sometimes called Arbela). Kineas wins a prize as bravest ally.
330 BC Allies dismissed. Kineas exiled.
329 BC Battle of the Ford of the River God. Kineas and selected men set out for the east.
Parmenion murdered. Philotas executed.
328 BC Destruction of Pharnuches’s detachment. Battle of the Jaxartes.
326 BC Battle of Hydaspes. Troops mutiny.
325 BC Satrapal Purge. Alexander executes many of his own governors.
324 BC Death of Hephaestion
323 BC Alexander dies. Settlement at Babylon. Arrhidaios acclaimed by Infantry as King Philip III of Macedon. Antipater as autonomous strategos of Europe. Perdikkas (Chiliarch) commander of the army. Krateros named royal Prostates. Ptolemy takes Egypt. Antigonus One Eye receives Pamphylia and Lycia and Great Phrygia; Eumenes of Cardia receives Paphlagonia and Cappadoccia. Lysimachos is given the satrapy of Thrace. Seleukos becomes Perdikkas’s commander of cavalry.
320 BC Antipater, Lysimachos, Craterus and Ptolemy form coalition against Perdikkas and Eumenes. Perdikkas defeated by Ptolemy and murdered in Egypt by his own officers (Seleucus amongst them). Eumenes defeats Craterus and kills him. This results in the settlement of Triparadeisos [Diodorus Siculus XVIII.39]. Coalition declares death sentence against Eumenes. Antipater named Regent. Antigonus named field commander and Strategos of Asia, Satrap of Greater Phrygia. Cassander, son of Antipater, named Chiliarch (commander of the cavalry).
319 BC (Autumn) Antipater dies, leaving regency to Polyperchon. Second war of the Successors — Polyperchon vs. Cassander, Antigonus, and Ptolemy.
317 BC Eurydyke, Queen of Macedon and wife of Philip III, deposes Polyperchon and makes Cassander regent. Olympias (mother of Alexander) marches from Epirus, captures Philip III and Eurydyke and kills them (Autumn). Olympias surrenders to Cassander, who executes her with a military tribunal. (315 BC)
316 BC Philip III dies, executed by his mother. Eumenes defeats Antigonus, then defeats him again but is murdered by his officers.
315 BC Seleucus flees Babylon to Ptolemy.
314 BC Battle of Gaza
309 BC Battle of the Tanais River. Herakles, son of Alexander, betrayed by Polyperchon and murdered in Thrace with his mother. Alexander IV, King of Macedon and Alexander’s other son, also killed.
305 BC Dionysus of Heraclea, uncle of Amastris, dies. Amastris becomes queen of Heraclea.
302 BC Amastris of Heraclea sends aid to Lysimachus and then marries him.
301 BC
(Spring)
Cassander’s army marches to join Lysimachus.
301 BC Battle of Ipsus.

 

 


Some thoughts on chronology and sources

It may seem to most readers that chronology — the dates on which things happen — should be fixed, but that is not the case. I’m a novelist and only secondarily a real historian, and it was my concern to make the best possible story from the data available in history. This is the chronology that I have chosen.

First, most of the events of Alexander’s time have come down to us only through sources that are, themselves, from decades or centuries after the death of Alexander. In this, our sources on Alexander are very much like our sources on the historical Jesus, with all the same possibilities for guesswork — and heresy.

The source most immediately familiar to most people who know Alexander is Arrianus. Lucius Flavius Arrianus (86 AD to at least 146 AD) lived approximately four hundred years after Alexander. He wrote a detailed military biography. Most historians believe that he had access to some excellent sources now lost to us, but readers need to keep in mind that Arrian is farther from Alexander in time than I am from George Washington, with all that implies! It is worth noting that Arrian was a senior Roman official (of Greek background) and was a soldier, two major attributes in writing about war.

Diodorus Siculus (Diodorus of Sicily) was not popular with classical historians until the last thirty years of scholarship, new papyri, and some archeology started to make his assertions seem less odd and more accurate. He wrote a history of the whole world from the beginning down to 60 BC or so, and his work spans the whole of Alexander’s career. Writing sometime around 49 BC, he comes about 260 years after Alexander — again, more time separates him from the target than separates me from George Washington.

Plutarch (46 AD to 120 AD) is a little earlier than Arrian. His life of Alexander is a moral tale, and has some flaws. It is worth noting, however, that Plutarch tells stories of Alexander that no one else has, and historians believe he had sources not available to Diodorus or to Arrian.

There are other sources, and to fully understand the agreements and disagreements between them, I recommend that the reader get a copy of Robinson’s History of Alexander the Great, Vol. I (Ares Publishers, Chicago, 1953) and read the preface. Part I has an index to extant fragments, but predates the latest papyri finds. Part II has the fragments themselves.

Further (and I hope no one’s intelligence is insulted here) there was no standard method of chronology before more modern times. Alexander did not know that he won the battle of the Granicus three hundred and thirty four years before the coming of the Christian era. Most Macedonians would have dated the battle from Alexander’s reignal date. Many Persians would have dated the battle from Darius’s reignal date. An Athenian would date the battle based on the Archons of Athens, or just possibly based on the Olympiad. 334 BC is the third year of the 111th Olympiad. To add to the problems of calculating dates in the Greek world, every city had its own festival calendar, and different cities had different dates to start and end the year, which I find greatly complicates my own amateur attempts to calculate a date myself based on a source. It may be 334 BC in one city, but technically, it may be 335 BC in another, unless all dates are calculated against our modern calendar. And of course, the change from Julian to Gregorian will, in some cases, add to the general chaos.

So — the chronology above is mine, and it’s the chronology I will stick to for all the Tyrant novels, but beware! It is at least partly of my own research and design, and there are dates (especially in the wars of the Diadochi) that are not the commonly accepted ones.

Throughout my own research on dates and chronology, I used many sources, but my highest praise has to go to Wikipedia, without whose articles and content I’d still be tapping my forehead with a pencil in vexation.